Why I tell everybody to exercise 10 mins per day according to the book,Spark-the revolutionary new science of exercise and the brain

December 14, 2022

To understand the benefits of exercise for children, the elderly, women and all people, it is necessary to understand these substances that the body secretes after exercise.

BDNF: - increased by aerobic exercise

* Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein

* High quality nutritional fertilizer for the brain

* The material link between thought, emotion and movement

* Determines neuroplasticity and neonatogenesis

* Positive influence on memory, attention, behavior

* Brain's potential to record and process information

Neurotransmitters - chemicals that transmit information between neurons or between neurons and effector cells such as muscle cells, glandular cells, etc.

Serotonin Serotonin.

* Inhibits impulses

* Improves memory

Norepinephrine INN:

* Attention

* Memory

* Motivation


* Learning ability

* Satisfaction

* Attention

* Exercise

Cardiac natriuretic ANP.

* Cardiac-secreted peptide, diuretic, antihypertensive, important hormone

* May reduce chronic stress and improve productivity

* Improves anxiety, fear, depression, addiction

How does exercise improve learning ability?

* Thought patterns, such as alertness, attention, drive

* Basis for nerve cell connectivity

* Stem cells in the hippocampus (memory) are stimulated to differentiate new nerve cells

Two proof tests: exercising rats have twice as many new stem cells in the hippocampus than not exercising

Human exercise for 30 minutes twice a week for 12 weeks improves executive function

Mild stress activates intrinsic neuronal repair and recovery mechanisms, while chronic long-term stress is highly damaging to the brain.

Stress can be immune, and proper stress is good for the brain.

People with low self-esteem have a low stress threshold.

How does exercise promote a long and healthy life?

1. Strengthen the cardiovascular system - increase blood flow and slow down the hardening of the brain arteries

2. Regulate energy - high blood sugar increases the likelihood of Alzheimer's by 77%, exercise increases IGF-1 regulated insulin, improves cellular energy utilization and reduces amyloid in dementia

3. Weight loss

4. Raise stress threshold

5. Improve mood: treat depression, anxiety, social phobia, addiction and other mental illnesses

6. Immune system: reduce inflammatory response

7. Improve bones: women at age 60, bone content decreases by 30%, strength training is recommended

8. Boost motivation (dopamine)

9. Promote neuroplasticity - learning, memory, execution, control of emotions

The authors recommendations in terms of nutrition and exercise programs.

Diet: balanced carbohydrates, fats, proteins, low carb for weight loss, not for the brain

Whole grains: Polysaccharides are transporters of nutritional amino acids for the brain (e.g. tryptophan - forms serotonin)

Trial of eating fish 3 times a week reduced dementia rate by 50%

Supplements: 1200mg-EPA+200mgDHA-fish oil


              800mg-folic acid-improves memory


* Aerobic: 4T/wk,30-60mins,Max heart rate 60%-65% (Max heart rate calculation is 220-year age)

* Strength: 2T/wk, weights or equipment. 3 sets of 10-15 reps, increase bone density

* Balance and flexibility: 2T/wk, 30mins yoga, pilates, dance, tai chi, etc.

For people who have never exercised before, start with walking and gradually increase the amount.

Experiments have shown that daily exercise increases BDNF faster than every other day of exercise.

Exercise program for ADHD.

Preferably a strictly scheduled type, such as fighting

* Brain-skill

* Body-strength

Benefits of Exercise for Women.

PMS, postpartum depression, menopausal hormone disorders, through exercise to produce neurotransmitters and improve the negative effects of drastic hormone changes on mood; increase bone density

Children born to exercising pregnant women outperform non-exercising children in terms of learning ability, both in terms of IQ and spoken language.

Exercise is an effective way to challenge yourself and your brain

Strenuous exercise produces euphoria, the result of endorphin secretion

If you feel that the author's recommendations are too much exercise, it is recommended to start with low intensity to develop micro habits, such as 10 minutes of aerobic and 10 minutes of balance and flexibility every day to reduce resistance to action, I recommend aerobic training in the morning and balance and flexibility classes at night to improve sleep quality


Lopez-Lopez, C., LeRoith, D., Torres-Aleman, I. (2004). Insulin-like growth factor I is required for vessel remodeling in the adult brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 101 (26), 9833-9838. Pereira, AC, Huddleston, DE, Brickman, AM, Sosunov, AA, Hen, R, McKhann, G, Sloan, R, Gage, FH, Brown, TR, Small, SA. (2007). An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. PNAS, 104: 5638-43. Trejo, J.L. Carro, E. & Torres-Aleman, I. (2001). Circulating insulin-like growth factor mediates exerciseinduced increases in the number of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 1628-1634. Van Praag, H., Kempermann, G. & Gage, F. H. (1999). Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 266-270. Vaynman, S. & Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2006). Revenge of the “ sit ” : How lifestyle impacts neuronal and cognitive health though molecular systems that interface energy metabolism with neuronal plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 84, 699-715.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;14(7):621-4. PMID: 16816016 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Basile VC, Motta RW, Allison DB. Antecedent exercise as a treatment for disruptive behavior: testing hypothesized mechanisms of action. Behavioral Interventions 1995;10:119–40. Bonhauser M, Fernandez G, Püschel K, Yañez F, Montero J, Thompson B, Coronado G. Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial. Health Promot Int. 2005 Jun;20(2):113-22 Brown SW, Welsh MC, Labbe EE, Vitulli WF, Kulkarni P. Aerobic exercise in the psychological treatment of adolescents. Percept Mot Skills 1982;74:555–60. Burdette HL, Whitaker RC. Resurrecting free play in young children: looking beyond fitness and fatness to attention, affiliation, and affect. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Jan;159(1):46-50. CDC. (2005). "Children and Teens Told by Doctors That They Were Overweight ― United States, 1999-2002." MMWR. Cameron, H.A. & Gould, E. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by adrenal steroids in the dentate gyrus. Neuroscience 61, 203–209 (1994). Castelli DM, Hillman CH, Buck SM, Erwin HE. Physical fitness and academic achievement in third- and fifth-grade students. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007 Apr;29(2):239-52. CDC: “Participation in high school PE—United States 1991-2003.” (2005) MMWR Weekly 53(36):844-847. CDC’s Schools Health Policy and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2000: Physical Education and Fact Sheet. CDC. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2005. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2006;55(SS-5):1–108. Coe DP, Pivarnik JM, Womack CJ, Reeves MJ, Malina RM. Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Aug;38(8):1515-9. Colcombe SJ, Erickson KI, Scalf PE, Kim JS, Prakash R, McAuley E, Elavsky S, Marquez DX, Hu L, Kramer AF.Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Nov;61(11):1166-70. Cotman, C. W. & Berchtold, N. C. (2002). Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends in Neuroscience, 25, 295-301. Covassin T, Weiss L, Powell J, Womack C. Effects of a maximal exercise test on neurocognitive function.Br J Sports Med. 2007 Jun;41(6):370-4; DALEY, A. J., and J. RYAN. Academic performance and participation in physical activity by secondary school adolescents. Percept. Mot. Skills 91:531–534, 2000. Dishman, R.K., Berthoud, H.R., Boot, F.W., Cotman, C.W., Edgerton, V.R., Fleshner, M.R., Gandevia, S.C., Gomez-Pinilla, F., Greenwood, B.N., Hillman, C.H., Kramer, A.F., Levin, B.E., Toran, T.H., Russo-Neustadt, A.A., Salamone, J.D., Van Hoomissen, J.D., Wade, C.E., York, D.A. & Zigmound, M.J. (2006). The neurobiology of exercise. Obesity Research, 14(3), 345-356. Dishman, R., Renner, KJ, et al. (2000 ). "Treadmill exercise training augments brain NE response to familiar and novel stress." Brain Research Bulletin 52(5): 337-342. Dwyer, T., Coonan, W. E., Leitch, D. R., Hetzel, B. S. and Baghurst, R. A. (1983). "An Investigation of the Effects of Daily Physical Activity on the Health of Primary School Students in South Australia." Int. J. Epidemiol. 12(3): 308-313. DWYER, T., J. F. SALLIS, L. BLIZZARD, R. LAZARUS, and K. DEAN.Relationship of academic performance to physical activity and fitness in children. Pediatric Exercise Science 13:225–237, 2001. Editorial. Training for the brain. Boston Globe. October 14,2004 http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/editorials/articles/2004/10/14/traini ng_for_the_brain?mode=PF Education, C. D. o. (2005). California Physical Fitness Test: A Study of the Relationship Between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in California Using 2004 Test Results. Sacramento, CA. Ekeland E, Heian F, Hagen KB, et al. Exercise to improve self esteem in children and young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2004.Issue 1.CD003683. Ekeland E., HeianF., Hagen K. Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trialsE Br J Sports Med 2005;39:792–798. Etnier, J.L., Nowell, P.M., Landers, D.M. & Sibley, B.A. (2006). A meta-regression to examine the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. Brain Research Reviews. 52, 119-130. Fabel, K., Fabel, K. & Palmer, T.D. VEGF is necessary for exercise-induced neurogenesis. Eur. J. Neurosci. 18, 2803–2812 (2003) Field T, Diego M, Sanders CE. Exercise is positively related to adolescents’ relationships and academics. Adolescence 2001;36:105–10. Ferris LT, Williams JS, Shen CL. The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Apr;39(4):728-34. Greenwood BN, Foley TE, Day HE, Campisi J, Hammack SH, Campeau S, Maier SF, Fleshner M. Freewheel running prevents learned helplessness/behavioral depression: role of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2003 Apr 1;23(7):2889-98. Gould, E., Cameron, H.A., Daniels, D.C., Woolley, C.S. & McEwen, B.S. Adrenal hormones suppress cell division in the adult rat dentate gyrus. J. Neurosci. 12, 3642–3650 (1992). Harrison PA, Narayan G. Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence. J Sch Health. 2003 Mar;73(3):113-20. Helliker K., Studies suggest exercise boosts cognitive function The Wall Street Journal. September 09, 2005 Hillman CH, Castelli DM, Buck SM. Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Nov;37(11):1967-74. Hillman CH, Motl RW, Pontifex MB, Posthuma D, Stubbe JH, Boomsma DI, de Geus EJ. Physical activity and cognitive function in a cross-section of younger and older community-dwelling individuals. Health Psychol. 2006 Nov;25(6):678-87. Kaiser Family Foundation, May 2006. Children Media Study KEAYS, J. J., and K. R. ALLISON. The effects of regular moderate to vigorous physical activity on student outcomes: a review. Can.J. Public Health 86:62–66, Kelder SH, Perry CL, Klepp KI. Community-wide youth exercisepromotion: Long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 Study. J School Health 1993;63:218–23. Kirkcaldy BD, Shephard RJ, Siefen RG. The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behavior among adolescents. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology 2002;37:544–50. McDermott RJ, Hawkins WE, Marty PJ, Littlefield EA, Murray S,Williams TK. Health behavior correlates of depression in a sample of high school students. J School Health 1990;60:414–7. Mechanic D, Hansell S. Adolescent competence, psychological wellbeing, and selfassessed physical health. J Health Soc Behav 1987;28: 364–74. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS): Health, United States, 2005: Determinants and measures of health—Overweight, Children and Adolescents. Netz Y, Tomer R, Axelrad S, Argov E, Inbar O. The effect of a single aerobic training session on cognitive flexibility in late middle-aged adults. Int J Sports Med. 2007 Jan;28(1):82-7 Norris R, Carroll D, Cochrane R. The effects of physical activity and exercise training on psychological stress and well-being in an adolescent population. J Psychosom Res 1992;36:55– 65 Page RM, Tucker LA. Psychosocial discomfort and exercise frequency: An epidemiological study of adolescents. Adolescence 1994;29:183–91. Pate RR, Heath GW, Dowda M, Trost SG. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Am J Public Health 1996;86:1577–81 Reynolds D, Nicolson RI.Follow-up of an exercise-based treatment for children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia. 2007 May;13(2):78-96. Rosenzweig, M. R. & Bennett, E. L. (1996). Psychobiology of plasticity: effects of training and experience on brain and behavior. Behavioral Brain Research, 78, 57-65. Sanders CE, Field TM, Diego M, Kaplan M. Moderate involvement in sports is related to lower depression levels among adolescents. Adolescence 2000;35:793–7 Sallis, J., et al. (1999). "Effects of health related PE on academic achievement: Project SPARK." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 70(2): 127-134 Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32: 963–75. Schmitz KH, Lytle LA, Phillips GA, Murray DM, Birnbaum AS, Kubik MY. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity and sedentary leisure habits in young adolescents: The Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition study. Prev Med 2002;34:266–78Shephard, R. (1997). "Curricular PA and academic performance." Pediatric Exercise Science 9: 113-126 SHEPHARD, R. J. Habitual physical activity and academic performance. Nutr. Rev. 54:S32– S36, 1996. SHEPHARD, R. J., and H. LAVALLEE. Academic skills and required physical education: the Trois Rivieres experience. CAHPER J. Res. Suppl. 1:1–12, 1994. SIBLEY, B., and J. ETNIER. The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science 15:243–253, 2003 Steptoe A, Butler N. Sports participation and emotional well-being in adolescents. Lancet 1996;347:1789–92 Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie JR, Daniels SR, Dishman RK, Gutin B, et al. Physical activity recommendations for school-age youth. J Pediatr 2005;146:732-7 TREMBLAY, M. S., J. D. BARNES, J. L. COPELAND, and D. W. ESLIGER. Conquering Childhood Inactivity: Is the Answer in the Past? Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 1187–1194, 2005. TREMBLAY, M. S., J. W. INMAN, and J. D. WILLMS. The relationshipbetween physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement in 12-year-old children. Pediatric Exercise Science 12:312–323, 2000 TOMPOROWSKI, P. Cognitive and behavioral responses to acute exercise in youths: a review. Pediatric Exercise Science 15:348–359, 2003. Vaynman S, Gomez-Pinilla F. Revenge of the "sit": how lifestyle impacts neuronal and cognitive health throughmolecular systems that interface energy metabolism with neuronal plasticity.J Neurosci Res. 2006 Sep;84(4):699-715. Review. PMID: 16862541 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] van Praag, H., Chistie, B.R., Sejnowski, T.J. & Gage, F.H. Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 13427–13431 (1999). van Praag, H., Kempermann, G. & Gage, F.H. Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nat. Neurosci. 2, 266–270 (1999). Yoshiuchi K, Nakahara R, Kumano H, Kuboki T, Togo F, Watanabe E, Yasunaga A, Park H, Shephard RJ, Aoyagi Y. Yearlong physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Japanese adults: cross-sectional data from the Nakanojo study Wells VE, Deykin EY, Klerman GL. Risk factors for depression inadolescence. Psychiatric Devel 1985;3:83–108 Winter B, Breitenstein C, Mooren FC, Voelker K, Fobker M, Lechtermann A, Krueger K, Fromme A, Korsukewitz C, Floel A, Knecht S. High impact running improves learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007 May;87(4):597-609